Автор: Глубоченко О.В.

/ pedagogical sciences_

УДК: 378.147.091.321

Глубоченко О.В.

Буковинський державний медичний унгверситет, м. Чермвщ Укра&та

DOI: 10.24411/2520-6990-2020-12084 ЛЕКЦ1Я ЯК НАВЧАЛЬНИЙ МЕТОД: ПЕРЕВАГИ I НЕДОЛ1КИ

Glubochenko O. V.

MD, PhD, Associate professor Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine



У cmammi обговорюеться мгсце лекци в навчальному процесг. Розкрито методологгчт засади побу-дови лекцШ, типи лекцШ, ïx переваги та недолти, умови повноцтного та ефективного дгалогу nid час лекцШ та важливкть ефективного зворотного зв&язку. У статтг наголошено на важливостг включення в лекцгю елементгв ттерактивностг та тших новгтнгх стратегш викладання для досягнення кращих ре-зультатгв у навчаннг, посилення уваги та мотивацИ] сприяння розвитку профестно&1& компетентностг студентгв та покращенню зворотного зв&язку мгж викладачами та студентами.


The article discussed the place of lecture in educational process It is reveals methodological principles of lectures construction, types of lectures, its advantages and disadvantages, conditions for the full-fledged and effective lecture dialogue and importance of goodfeedback. The article accentuated on importance of incorporation into the lecture the elements of active learning and other teaching strategies to achieve higher cognitive domains of learning, intensify attention and motivation, help to develop professional competency of students and improving feedback to teachers and students.

Ключовi слова: лекц1я, ттерактивна технолог1я, навчання Key words: Lecture, interactive technology, education

Lectures are one of the most common teaching methods in medical education. Lectures represent a special design of the learning process and become the main element of the didactic cycle instruction. This is effective, traditional and the most dominant instructional teaching element commonly used in academic institutions or universities for teaching a large group. It has been suggested that teaching methods that enhance engagement and encourage self-directed learning can be effective in delivering core knowledge and explaining difficult concepts leading to increased learning [1, 2].

The main didactic goal of the lecture is the providing of actual knowledge and the formation of a basis for further assimilation of educational materials by students. Lectures not only cover the actual material but can give an explanation of difficult topic, provide different perspectives on a subject, up-to-date results of modern research and relevant clinical or laboratory experience. Another goal of lecture is invite students to think imaginatively and conceptually about a significant theme. At the lecture the teacher can methodically assist students in the mastering of complex information.

There are the following conditions for the full-fledged and effective lecture dialogue takes place:

- the properly craft an introduction that will set a clear and engaging plane of lecture.

- create and outline main points of lecture, clinical examples, visuals, and analogies to reinforce the main educational material, try to delivery more effective style of presentation;

- finding more accurate and modern means to convey the material content to the audience without loss of key moments;

- ensuring a clear visual and audial contact with the listeners;

- timely reaction to the behavior of listeners;

- emphasize objectives and key points of lecture material in the beginning and do a summary at the end.

Types of academic lectures are determined by the appropriate approach to organizing an educational process in universities. Major C. et al. categorized lecture by levels of student interaction [3]:

• Formal lecture. The lecturer delivers a well-organized, tightly constructed, and highly polished presentation. This type of lecture works well for teaching large groups of students In the formal lecture, students hold questions until the conclusion of the lecture.

• Socratic lecture. This type of lecture, which typically follows a reading assignment to give students a baseline of knowledge, is structured around a series of carefully sequenced questions. The instructor asks a single student a question sequence. The questions require the student to use logic and inference skills.

• Semi-formal lecture. This is the most common type of lecture. Somewhat similar to the formal lecture, the semiformal lecture is less elaborate in form and production. Occasionally, the lecturer entertains student questions during the presentation of material.

• Lecture-discussion. This type of lecture encourages greater student participation. The instructor presents the talk, but he or she stops frequently to ask students questions or to request that students read their


prepared materials. The direction of interaction can occur in one of three ways: (1) instructor to class, (2) instructor to individual student, or (3) individual student to instructor.

• Interactive lecture. In this version of lecturing, the instructor uses mini-lectures about 20 minutes long, and involves students in a range of brief content-related activities in between. Interaction may occur between instructor and students or between and among students.

Advantages of lecture method are:

- replenishment of knowledge and its updating;

- providing for synthesis of current information from different sources;

- stimulating role (causing interest to the subject);

- orienting role (in the problem and in the literature);

- developing function (evaluates phenomena, develops thinking);

- explaining function (aimed primarily at the formation of the basic concepts of clinical discipline);

- persuasive and evidence function (with an emphasis on evidence system);

- possibilities of presenting material not otherwise available to students;

- .possibilities of presenting large amounts of information to large audiences;

- possibilities of modelling professional work through disciplinary questions or problems.

Traditional academic lectures have some disadvantages [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]:

- In surveys, students indicate that an important reason to attend is to get an impression of what will be asked during the examination; acquiring knowledge is usually rated as less important. Some teachers seem to reinforce such attitudes by focusing during tests exclusively on information shared with students through PowerPoint slides. The result is that students do not consult textbooks in their area. Their knowledge of the domain necessarily must become superficial and abbreviated; stuff for examinations rather than for life.

- Lecturing is a passive activity. In ordinary lecture students placing a passive (rather than an active) role, encouraging one-way communication, requiring significant out-of-class time for students to engage with the material. Members of the audience may be busy taking notes, but usually, have little time or opportunity to reflect on or question the material and clarify a misunderstanding.

- Lectures are not an effective method for changing attitudes and do not help participants to analyze and synthesize ideas and producing doctors with poor critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Lecturing doesn&t always encourage students to move beyond memorization of the information presented and information retention may be poor.

- The lecturing method is autocratic in form; it may allow little active audience participation, while at the same time providing little feedback to the speaker as to the effectiveness of the presentation.

- Lectures cannot cope with a wide diversity of ability. It does not afford the instructor with ways to provide students with individual feedback.

- Some students have time to comprehend the lecture, others - only mechanically write down the words of the lecturer. It is difficult for teacher to adapt to individual learning differences.

- Lecture time is limited. A teacher cannot, in sufficient detail, discuss all subject matter to be learned. He has to summarize topics, focus on what he sees as essential, describe in approximate fashion, or select topics at the expense of others. Therefore, teachers often feel that they have insufficiently covered the material taught.

- Lecturing method does not promote independent learning and not the most effective method for promoting student thought, changing attitudes, or teaching behavioral skills.

To avoid these disadvantages the teacher can incorporate into the lecture active learning and other teaching strategies, such as questioning and problemsolving activities. Effective lecture is an interactive lecture with involving students& activity. The role of the lecturer is a &facilitator& and a &guide& with "open style" lecturing which allows for better comprehension.

Interactiveness of lecture means that a modern lecture happens in a way of a conversation with the involvement of students in the discussion of the theme. The characteristic features are the use of special lexical-grammatical elements that serve different functions, for example, inviting students to speak, asking, confirming, disagreeing, and etcetera [9].

Interactive methods that can be used in lecturing include the following: brainstorming, questioning techniques, rhetorical questions, quizzes or short answers, and etc.

Brainstorming is a large or small group activity that employed not only to break the monotony of a lecture process but also to activate the knowledge of students regarding the topic and encourages students to focus on specific question and contribute to the free flow of ideas for the given problems. Brainstorming can be used at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of a lecture.

Brainstorming at the beginning of the lecture can provide an evaluation of the students& knowledge of a particular area prior to teaching. Brainstorming in the middle can help to regain the students& attention, change the lectures tempo, or to apply certain practical facts for better understanding. Brainstorming at the end of a lecture allows the students to summarize the presented information, to make accent on important points of the lecture material and allows the teacher to check audience feedback.

Rhetorical questions are a special rhetorical device where a question is asked by a speaker, but no answer is expected from the audience, but waits the effect. These types of questions stimulate thought without requiring an answer and used to persuade or subtly influence the audience. Often, a rhetorical question is used to stimulate interest in the subsequent presentation, emphasize a point or just to get the audience thinking.

«C@yL@qyiym-J©yrMaL»#2®I72),2©2© / PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCES

In different part of the lecture can actively use questioning. Questioning can engage learners by stimulating active participation in the learning process, guide them toward the understanding of deeper concepts, promote peer-peer collaboration, and build their confidence and through questioning, clinicians can stimulate critical thinking while actively modeling the process of inquiry and life-long learning [10].

Quizzes, short-answer question, multiple-choice questions, hybrid question can be incorporated into the lecture at the beginning, middle or end. Testing help to summarize the information presented, to increase students retention of the information covered. It can to be used to provide a check of acquired knowledge and note gaps in understanding of presented lectures contents. Any type of these variant that encourages retrieval should help students to learn. This can be done by choosing of 3-5 key lectures concepts that important for memorizing, and writing short-answer questions (quizzes, multiple-choice questions, hybrid question etc.) related to these concepts. Then put questions on slides, after explanation of each concept. If time allows, two or three summarizing tests may be at the end of the lecture to consolidate knowledge.

In engaging lectures, students are given short periods of lecture followed by "breaks" that may consist of 5min papers, problem sets, brainstorming sessions, or open discussion. These breaks are incorporated into the lecture to improve student performance, increase alertness, promote engagement, and allow immediate application of course material [11, 12].

Interactivity in lecture improves understanding of the subject, perception and retention of knowledge, clearing of material doubts, develops critical thinking, improves the confidence and communication skills.

Thus, the lecture in a modern education should be based on traditional pedagogical principles, but at the same time the lectures methods must be constantly improves by implementation of modern educational strategies and interventions for better interactivity. Interactivity methods help to achieve higher cognitive domains of learning and help to develop professional competency of students. The use of interactive lectures increasing student involvement, leads to effective and proper utilization of educational time, can promote active learning, intensify attention and motivation, give good feedback to the teachers and the students, and helps to attain the specific learning objectives.


1. Wolff M, Wagner MJ, Poznanski S, Schiller J, Santen S Not another boring lecture: engaging learners with active learning techniques. J Emerg Med. 2015 Jan; 48(1):85-93. Available from: http://sites.uci.edu/medicaleducator/ files/2015/08/ Not-Just-Another-Boring-Lecture_2015 .pdf
2. Badave GK. Dhananjay K. Large group teaching method in undergraduate medical curriculum: students& perspective. J of Evolution of Med and Dent Sci. 2014, 48(3):11567-11572.
3. Major CH, Harris MS, Zakraj sek T Teaching for learning: 101 intentionally designed educational activities to put students on the path to success. New York: Routledge, 2016. 356p. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4324/ 9780203111031
4. Henk G. Schmidtn , Stephanie L. Wagener, Guus A.C.M. Smeets, Lianne M. Keemink, Henk T. van der Molen On the Use and Misuse of Lectures in Higher Education Health Professions Education Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2015, Pages 12-18 Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/ pii/S2452301115000115?via%3Dihub
5. Advantages Disadvantages of Lecturing. Teaching Resources Guide.com. South Alabama University. Retrieved4 March2015. - Available from: https ://www.southalabama. edu/.
6. McKimm J, Jollie C Facilitating learning: Teaching and learning Methods. - Available from:: http ://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac .uk/.
7. Lecturing: Advantages and Disadvantages of the Traditional Lecture Method. CIRTL Network. -[Internet]. - Available from: http ://www. cirtl. net/node/2570.
8. Armstrong S. Natural Learning in Higher Education. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Heidelberg: Springer. 2012. Available from: http://reposi-tory.upenn.edu/ marketing_papers/140.
9. Malavska V. Genre of an Academic Lecture. International Journal on Language, Literature and Culture in Education. 2016. 3. Available from: https://www.re-searchgate.net/publication/310815820_Genre_of_an_Academic_Lecture
10. Tofade T, Elsner J, Haines ST. Best practice strategies for effective use of questions as a teaching tool. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(7):155.

Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256837974_Best_Prac-tice_Strategies_for_Effective_Use_of_Ques-tions_as_a_Teaching_Tool

11. Lom B. Classroom activities: simple strategies to incorporate student centered activities within undergraduate science lectures. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ 2012; 11: A64-A71 Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pmc/arti-cles/PMC3592730/.
12. Ernst H, Colthorpe K. The efficacy of interactive lecturing for students with diverse science backgrounds. Adv Physiol Educ 2007; 31: 41-44. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17327581/.
лекція інтерактивна технологія навчання lecture interactive technology education
Другие работы в данной теме:
Стать экспертом Правила
Обратная связь
Общая информация
Для новых пользователей
Для новых экспертов