Автор: Mirzaakhmedov Kamoliddin

38 Regional aspects of birth rate (for example, Tatarstan) //http://euroasia-science.ru/sociologicheskie-nauki/regionalnye-aspekty-rozhdaemosti-na-primere-respubliki-tatarstan/ 39. Between the law and the adat: Women in the North Caucasus found themselves virtually unprotected. 08.15.2015 // https://femunity.livejournal.com/ 500548.html 40 Legal status of polygamous marriages in the countries of the world. 06.28.2011 // https://talgat-irisbaev.livejournal.com/2093.html


English version of the article was submitted by the author for the bulletin "Russia and the Moslem World."

Kamoliddin Mirzaakhmedov,

PhD(Political sciences), National University of Uzbekistan

Citation: Mirzaakhmedov K. Conceptual Approach to Democratization of Public Administration // Russia and the Moslem World, 2020, No. 2 (308), P. 66-76.

Abstract. In this article, the author revealed the structural and institutional factors of democratic governance through a comparative analysis of the fundamentals of democratization system of the public administration.

The movement towards the democratic state is proven to become the case in various states and in different forms. Ethical and semantic analysis of democracy indicates that it has a variety of social areas such as "political democracy," "economic democracy," "democratic values," "democratic state," "democratic society," &democratic governance," and "democratic development" areas of activity are used.

Thus, the democratic features of the modernization of a particular country do not include the emergence of political systems similar to the ones in the developed western countries. Indeed, democracy in each country has its own image. Because the decision of the democratic values in the minds of the people is carried out in essence, taking into account the nature of the thinking, which has been going on for hundreds of years. The decisive factor in the success of this process is that reform is a long-term conceptual strategy. The priorities set forth in the Order No. PF-5185 in 8 September 2017 of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh. Mirziyoev, "On Approval of the Concept of Administrative Reforms in the Republic of Uzbekistan" should serve one purpose: "Public institutions have to serve the people, not the people&s public institutions" [1] the idea of implementing a life-style idea in practice has just begun a new phase of democratic development in the country. Today&s world practice shows that there are internal mechanisms that ensure the dynamic development of a democratic society. At the current stage of modernization and processes in our country, reforms aimed at building a solid foundation for civil society are widely being developed, with the emphasis on the development of institutional and socio-economic bases of democracy based on the most recent conceptual approaches. Implementation of these tasks, in turn, serves as a basis for realizing the fundamental reform of human rights, including its expansion of its rights and freedoms, democratic renewal, strengthening the social structure of liberalization processes.

One of the most important subjects of the democratic political system, the introduction of new tasks in reforming its governance system, is an important basis of the reform of evolutionary democratization of society, primarily by the strengthening of the diversity and role of political institutions and non-governmental organizations, as well as increasing the political activeness of the population.

Almost all modern academic schools and centers dealing with public administration processes state that government can only be practiced within a democratic society. For example,

supporters of "strong administration" (M. Weber, A. Gaudner et al.) believed that the government&s democratic form would provide reasonable bureaucratic mechanisms. Representatives of the "Leadership Approach" (A. Ozborne and A. Gebler) argue that public administration should be horizontal, not vertical. Thus, the consideration of the elements of influence of civil society institutions in political decision-making in the field of horizontal governance is a sign of the existence of a democratic society [2, c. 31].

We believe that democracy in the field of horizontal governance will promote the rapid development of civil society institutions in society. The most important prerequisite for the success of democratization is the political stability aimed at reforming the society within the framework of the law, while maintaining the ability of state institutions to control the country.

From the 80&s of the 20th century, social science has emerged as a "modern transitology," a new direction of research, both regional and then secular. If we approach this concept from the etymological point of view, modern transitology includes the analysis of the socio-political transitions of the transitional nature associated with the formation of a new quality of the system of social relations. However, in practice, the term "transitology" has a narrower meaning, and the subject of research in this area is the transition from autocratic forms of power to democracy. Transitology is a matter of democratization as a relatively independent procedure in the system of social sciences [3, c. 150]. In a general sense, the process of political, economic, and socio-cultural transformations aimed at the democratization of the democratic system.

According to the Russian scientist A. Melville, "the history of the formation of democratic norms is connected with the process of development, expansion and renewal of democratic ideas and principles, institutions and procedures." In his opinion, "democracy is a process of democratization in a constant movement" [4, c. 48].

A natural question arises. How is transition to democratic governance? Experts today do not have a clear answer to this question. This is because the issue is not about unambiguous research, but in many countries around the world, the democratization strategies are linked to various reform processes.

For example, the Doctor of Philosophy subjects Sh.O. Mamadaliev searches for Oriental characters of democracy in the Institute of National Authority. For this purpose, he addresses the Indo-Buddhism, Confucian, Darwinist, and Islamic socio-religious concepts that are deeply rooted in the consciousness, lifestyle and mentality of the Oriental people.

According to the scientist, democracy in the East has an elitist and ethical nature, that is, the righteous king, the state is the institution that promotes prosperity, spiritual and cultural development. Therefore, the Oriental thinkers "have put forward various ideas and concepts about the justice, the noble ruler and the society of kindness, relying on the Eastern lifestyle and thinking. If the theocratic approach prevails in these views, then in the nineteenth century approaches to the management of the state are reflected in secular knowledge and modern approaches appears the world, especially the European experience" [5, c. 47].

In our view, depending on the democratization strategy chosen by the authorities and political institutions in a particular country, it is possible to differentiate the transit of democracy. It is also possible to define democratization processes based on criteria of particular subject matter and object. There is no doubt that, for example, the democratization process in Germany or Poland differs from the democratization processes in Uzbekistan or Kazakhstan. Naturally, the processes of democratization of the government may have been formed under the influence of civil or violent, revolutionary or evolutionary, internally or internally displaced. There is also a need for any democratic reformer to focus on a number of important and urgent issues: democratic consolidation of the political system, the development of the constitutional foundations of the state and society, the

establishment of civil society, the development of democratic functions of the state, Transition, as well as forming strong foreign policy directions that fully meet the country&s interests in the transition period of the political system.

An important aspect of the conceptual approach analysis is to examine the model of "democracy transit". In the 60s of the 20th century, American political scientists G. Almond and S. Verber within the concept of modernization developed the theory of political culture. According to them, the political culture and activity of citizens is a general indicator and criterion of a democratic state. G. Almond and S. Verber used components such as "cognitive orientation," "affective orientation" and "assessment approach." Unlikely, the theory of economics, the process of democratization of the state and society is not a process of economic development, but a process related to political norms, attitudes and behaviors. The founders of this theory have developed the concepts of civil culture, first of all, oriented to the formation and effective functioning of democratic institutions. Civic culture was thus characterized by a high degree of mutual trust, as well as a compromise on mutual interests and relationships, tolerance principles [6, c. 58].

In our opinion, democracy is a reality related to governance, which is recognized by many researchers. Democracy is linked to the political system; the political system ensures that the political rights and the democratic rights of the person are met, and the official constitutional and legal norms correspond to political reality. At the same time, the political system is not only a comprehensive and diverse political process; it also represents the interests of the state, the political system and political groups on the one hand, and the socio-political reality, reality, mass movements, democratic development.

Hence, democratization processes are not the actions of self-denying groups, but rather the actions of those who follow the principles of social development and integrate those laws into

their own work. Socio-historical development indicates that the subject of this activity is primarily the state and its political order.

However, not all political regimes, the state are based on democracy, collective control, but there are elements and forces that aspire to social progress. When these elements are supported by the conceptual models of social development that the powers are concerned, a real opportunity for democratic development is created.

Nowadays, two approaches to the study of processes of democratization of state governance are highlighted separately -structural and organizational.

The first approach focuses on the structural elements that shape the socio-economic, cultural and cultural values of the state and nation in the process of democratization.

Structural Approach Representatives S. Lipset, G. Almond, S. Verba, D. Rostou explain the structural foundations of democratic regimes as a factor of socioeconomic and cultural change by identifying the basic linkages between them. It explains democratic processes in terms of objective structures rather than subjective goals of participants. The representatives of this approach also point out three main types of democratization:

1. Achieving national unity;
2. Achieving a high level of socio-economic development;
3. Democratic principles trust in democratic institutions and citizenship, recognition of national cultural values and values.

Representatives of the organizational approach of democratization (G. O&Donnel, F. Shmiter, A. Pshevorsky), the mutual agreement of the political elite of democratization processes, the conscious choice at the process of achievement of the agreement, the various forms and institutions of the new social structure, the right of every citizen to participate in governance (the universal participation principle), the equal number of votes (the principle of political equality), the will of the majority (majority principle or majority rule of law) [7, c. 128].

Likewise, Russian political scientist L.V. Smorgunov enriched science-specific approaches and proposed two theoretical paradigms, such as liberal-democratization and radical-democratization [8, c. 59]. In his opinion, it is possible to define certain limits of the concept of "state-society-citizen" through elements of these democratization. In the liberal-democratization process, arbitrariness and disobedience of citizens are observed in the radical-democratization process, based on the principle of national supremacy aimed at ensuring the political participation of the society, not the freedom of one person.

The criterion for democratizing society has grown in shape and content throughout history. This process continues even today. Indeed, democratization of society has not attained a high level, ideal level in the most developed countries. Every nation and society will always have the originality in understanding, interpreting and practicing democracy. This peculiarity is determined by a number of factors, such as the historical history of the nation, the national mentality, the traditions, the acting social relations. There are general criteria that define the character of democratization of the state and society. The observance of the general principles of democracy is related to the existence and functioning of democratic institutions. Democratization of the society is essentially a factor that ensures the harmonious development of the individual and society.

The high level of democracy and the development of its bases for Uzbekistan is a unique phenomenon, and the model of the presidency has been presented here as the most acceptable form of democracy and power. "Gordienko Svetlana, the prominent Russian political scientist, highlights the need for a strong presidential and strategic leadership, not just the modernization of the president, but also the ultimate guarantee of democratic rights and freedoms, the elimination of the destructive processes in society, should be able to" [9, c. 4].

In this sense, the position of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan has been shaped by the combination of national

traditions, values and developed democratic nation&s experience. The Presidential Administration is a legal system that is an essential part of the rule of law, which is an important symbol of the rule of law. As a result of the establishment of the post of President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the mechanism of mutual conciliation of legislative, executive and judicial branches, and first of all legislative and executive bodies has been created.

However, when referring to the form of the presidential administration, it should be borne in mind that in the states where the presidency is governed, the President is the head of state and executive power, has extensive powers and is central to the system of state bodies. In this way, the principle of division of power networks is applied both functionally, institutional and personal, in real life. In our view, it is worth mentioning the following features of the presidential form of government: the President is the head of state and government, so the absence of a separate Prime Minister; Presidential powers directly taken by the people due to the introduction of the post of Vice-President in the country; The President must form the government independently of the parliament, and the government must be responsible only to the President, to resign his powers to the newly elected President; The president has no right to dissolve parliament.

Therefore, in the world of mixed-forming states, depending on the prevailing role of the President or the parliament, they are subdivided into presidential-parliamentary, parliamentary-presidential-style mixed forms. According to the dissertator, the authority of the President in the Constitution and the legislation and the role of practical life indicate that the presidential-parliamentary-type mixed form of government has been established in Uzbekistan.

As we analyze the complexity of the relationship between democracy and the government, it is important to note that democracy cannot survive without the power of strong power, and it should be noted that the existence of only powerful state institutions could not guarantee democracy. Indeed, they can lead to

the democrats and the society in the transformation of the state and their violation. The weakness of state power, on the other hand, leads to the ineffectiveness of an objective democratic democrat system.

The level of harmonization between management structure and society is primarily evident in the process of transparency, the development of independent mass media, the analysis and evaluation of the problem of access to information resources. Democratization of the society, its pluralization, along with the development of various political parties and movements, ideologies and movements, various views and political ideas. The development of new principles of public administration is largely based on these processes, and these are the basis for its formation and strengthening in the new qualities. In a progressive democratic state, strong power, based on the rule of law and justice, is based on public opinion in its immediate functioning.

Considering the processes of democratization of state governance, one can conclude that the most important element of effective administrative-public governance is the process of democratization and consolidation. Indeed, Strategies for action for further development of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 20172021, adopted by the Order No. PF-4947 in 7 February 2017of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Sh.Mirziyoev, states that in the present-day world, is a genuinely national democratic strategy that is focused on deepening democratic reforms in the field of construction, in five priority areas of judicial, economic, social and security spheres [10].

Conceptual analysis of democracy in the process of state reforms indicates that these processes are interconnected and we cannot define the precise boundaries of these processes during the analysis of these processes. Considering the role of public administration in the process of democratization, we can come to the following conclusions:

1. It is impossible to create a universal, conceptual model that will allow defining the conditions of democratization. This is

because every society has created a variety of conditions for this process;

2. The phenomenon of democratization, based on the influence of a complex of factors;
3. The implementation of democratic processes requires a systematic approach because the current elite strives to democratize the society, but lack of such a desire from the society does not produce effective results;
4. Democratization processes should be based on a synthesized approach to the structural and organizational model of democratization, since in practice we can not process this process on any model basis;
5. The process of democratization is an important factor, and the process of democratization, if not integration processes in the society, does not produce the desired results;
6. The process of democratization is directly related to public administration, as it is an effective management capable of meeting the basic requirements of democracy transit.

It should be noted that the existence of effective public administration, in our opinion, is a key element of the process of democratization of the society, as it has been mentioned above, an indispensable link between the state and society. Therefore, it is recommended that the main democratic principles of state governance in Uzbekistan be interpreted as follows:

- Ensuring social cohesion;

- Gradual decentralization of public administration;

- Introducing effective forms of public administration from bureaucracy and prevention of corruption;

- Increasing the effectiveness and transparency of the decision-making system;

- Creation of effective mechanisms for ensuring the rights and freedoms of citizens;

- Putting into practice the concept of "the public must serve the people, not the people&s public institutions."


1 Shavkat Mirziyoyev&s speech at the joint session of the chambers of the Oliy Majlis dedicated to the solemn ceremony of the post of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan // "We shall build free and prosperous Uzbekistan with our brave and noble people." - T.: December 14, 2016.
2. Ustinkin S.V., Ageev O.V. Byurokratiya i politika: Uchebnoe posobie [Bureaucracy and Politics: Textbook], Nizhny Novgorod. 2003, P. 31.
3. Baranov N.A. Transformacii sovremennoj demokratii: Uchebnoe posobie [Transformations of Modern Democracy: A Study Guide.] St. Petersburg, 2006, P. 150.
41 Melvill A.Yu. Kak izmeryat& i sravnivat& urovni demokraticheskogo razvitiya v raznyh stranah? [How to measure and compare levels of democratic development in different countries?] Moscow, MGIMO - Universitet, 2008, P. 48.
5. Mamadaliev Sh.O. Public administration: theory and practice. - T.: Academy of the Interior, 2003, P. 25-47.
6. Almond G., Verba S. Grazhdanskaya kulura [Civic Culture]. Moscow, 2003. P. 58.
7. Baranov N.A. Transformacii sovremennoj demokratii: Uchebnoe posobie [Transformations of Modern Democracy: A Study Guide.] St. Petersburg, 2006, P. 128.
8. Smorgunov L.V. Sravnitelnaya politologiya: teoriya i metodologiya izmereniya demokratii [Comparative Political Science: Theory and Methodology of Measuring Democracy]. Izdatelstvo Sankt-Peterburgskogo

universiteta, 1999. P. 59.

9. Gordienko S.V. Institut prezidentstva v Rossii, SSHA, Francii: konceptualnye osnovy i politiko-administrativnaya praktika: Sravnitelnyj analiz. [The Institute of the Presidency in Russia, USA, France: Conceptual Foundations and Political and Administrative Practice: A Comparative Analysis.] Moscow. 2004. The dissertation of the candidate of political science, P. 4.
10. The Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On the Strategy for the Further Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan" No. UP-4947, T.: February 7, 2017.
democratic transit legitimacy social system state power reform public organizations public control
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